## How do I convert an ASCII character to its decimal (or hexadecimal) value and back?

If you have a known octal or hexadecimal value (at script-writing time), you can just use printf:

```   # POSIX
printf '\x27\047\n'```

This prints two literal ' characters (27 is the hexadecimal ASCII value of the character, and 47 is the octal value) and a newline.

```   ExpandedString=\$'\x27\047\u0027\U00000027\n'
echo -n "\$ExpandedString"```

Another approach \$'...' strings are escaped before evaluation and can be embedded directly in code.

If you need to convert characters (or numeric ASCII values) that are not known in advance (i.e., in variables), you can use something a little more complicated:

```# POSIX
# chr() - converts decimal value to its ASCII character representation
# ord() - converts ASCII character to its decimal value

chr() {
[ \${1} -lt 256 ] || return 1
printf \\\$(printf '%03o' \$1)
}

# Another version doing the octal conversion with arithmetic
# faster as it avoids a subshell
chr () {
[ \${1} -lt 256 ] || return 1
printf \\\$((\$1/64*100+\$1%64/8*10+\$1%8))
}

# Another version using a temporary variable to avoid subshell.
# This one requires bash 3.1.
chr() {
local tmp
[ \${1} -lt 256 ] || return 1
printf -v tmp '%03o' "\$1"
printf \\"\$tmp"
}

ord() {
LC_CTYPE=C printf '%d' "'\$1"
}

# hex() - converts ASCII character to a hexadecimal value
# unhex() - converts a hexadecimal value to an ASCII character

hex() {
LC_CTYPE=C printf '%x' "'\$1"
}

unhex() {
printf \\x"\$1"
}

# examples:

chr \$(ord A)    # -> A
ord \$(chr 65)   # -> 65```

The ord function above is quite tricky.

• Tricky? Rather, it's using a feature that I can't find documented anywhere -- putting a single quote in front of an integer. Neat effect, but how on earth did you find out about it? Source diving? -- GreyCat

• It validates The Single Unix Specification: "If the leading character is a single-quote or double-quote, the value shall be the numeric value in the underlying codeset of the character following the single-quote or double-quote." (see printf() to know more) -- mjf

### More complete examples (with UTF-8 support)

• The following example was submitted quite recently and needs to be cleaned up and validated.

#### 1. Note about Ext Ascii and UTF-8 encoding

• for values 0x00 - 0x7f Identical
• for values 0x80 - 0xff conflict between UTF-8 & ExtAscii

• for values 0x100 - 0xffff Only UTF-8 UTF-16 UTF-32
• for values 0x100 - 0x7FFFFFFF Only UTF-8 UTF-32
 value EAscii UTF-8 UTF-16 UTF-32 0x20 "\x20" "\x20" \u0020 \U00000020 0x20 "\x7f" "\x7f" \u007f \U0000007f 0x80 "\x80" "\xc2\x80" \u0080 \U00000080 0xff "\xff" "\xc3\xbf" \u00ff \U000000ff 0x100 N/A "\xc4\x80" \u0100 \U00000100 0x1000 N/A "\xc8\x80" \u1000 \U00001000 0xffff N/A "\xef\xbf\xbf" \uffff \U0000ffff 0x10000 N/A "\xf0\x90\x80\x80" \ud800\udc00 \U00010000 0xfffff N/A "\xf3\xbf\xbf\xbf" \udbbf\udfff \U000fffff 0x10000000 N/A "\xfc\x90\x80\x80\x80\x80" N/A \U10000000 0x7fffffff N/A "\xfd\xbf\xbf\xbf\xbf\xbf" N/A \U7fffffff 0x80000000 N/A N/A N/A N/A 0xffffffff N/A N/A N/A N/A

```  ###########################################################################
## ord family
###########################################################################
# ord        <Return Variable Name> <Char to convert> [Optional Format String]
# ord_hex    <Return Variable Name> <Char to convert>
# ord_oct    <Return Variable Name> <Char to convert>
# ord_utf8   <Return Variable Name> <Char to convert> [Optional Format String]
# ord_eascii <Return Variable Name> <Char to convert> [Optional Format String]
# ord_echo                      <Char to convert> [Optional Format String]
# ord_hex_echo                  <Char to convert>
# ord_oct_echo                  <Char to convert>
# ord_utf8_echo                 <Char to convert> [Optional Format String]
# ord_eascii_echo               <Char to convert> [Optional Format String]
#
# Description:
# converts character using native encoding to its decimal value and stores
# it in the Variable specified
#
#       ord
#       ord_hex         output in hex
#       ord_hex         output in octal
#       ord_utf8        forces UTF8 decoding
#       ord_eascii      forces eascii decoding
#       ord_echo        prints to stdout
function ord {
printf -v "\${1?Missing Dest Variable}" "\${3:-%d}" "'\${2?Missing Char}"
}
function ord_oct {
ord "\${@:1:2}" "0%c"
}
function ord_hex {
ord "\${@:1:2}" "0x%x"
}
function ord_utf8 {
LC_CTYPE=C.UTF-8 ord "\${@}"
}
function ord_eascii {
LC_CTYPE=C ord "\${@}"
}
function ord_echo {
printf "\${2:-%d}" "'\${1?Missing Char}"
}
function ord_oct_echo {
ord_echo "\${1}" "0%o"
}
function ord_hex_echo {
ord_echo "\${1}" "0x%x"
}
function ord_utf8_echo {
LC_CTYPE=C.UTF-8 ord_echo "\${@}"
}
function ord_eascii_echo {
LC_CTYPE=C ord_echo "\${@}"
}

###########################################################################
## chr family
###########################################################################
# chr_utf8   <Return Variale Name> <Integer to convert>
# chr_eascii <Return Variale Name> <Integer to convert>
# chr        <Return Variale Name> <Integer to convert>
# chr_oct    <Return Variale Name> <Octal number to convert>
# chr_hex    <Return Variale Name> <Hex number to convert>
# chr_utf8_echo                  <Integer to convert>
# chr_eascii_echo                <Integer to convert>
# chr_echo                       <Integer to convert>
# chr_oct_echo                   <Octal number to convert>
# chr_hex_echo                   <Hex number to convert>
#
# Description:
# converts decimal value to character representation an stores
# it in the Variable specified
#
#       chr                     Tries to guess output format
#       chr_utf8                forces UTF8 encoding
#       chr_eascii              forces eascii encoding
#       chr_echo                prints to stdout
#
function chr_utf8_m {
local val
#
# bash only supports \u \U since 4.2
#

# here is an example how to encode
# manually
# this will work since Bash 3.1 as it uses -v.
#
if [[ \${2:?Missing Ordinal Value} -le 0x7f ]]; then
printf -v val "\\%03o" "\${2}"
elif [[ \${2} -le 0x7ff        ]]; then
printf -v val "\\%03o\\%03o" \
\$((  (\${2}>> 6)      |0xc0 )) \
\$(( ( \${2}     &0x3f)|0x80 ))
elif [[ \${2} -le 0xffff       ]]; then
printf -v val "\\%03o\\%03o\\%03o" \
\$(( ( \${2}>>12)      |0xe0 )) \
\$(( ((\${2}>> 6)&0x3f)|0x80 )) \
\$(( ( \${2}     &0x3f)|0x80 ))
elif [[ \${2} -le 0x1fffff     ]]; then
printf -v val "\\%03o\\%03o\\%03o\\%03o"  \
\$(( ( \${2}>>18)      |0xf0 )) \
\$(( ((\${2}>>12)&0x3f)|0x80 )) \
\$(( ((\${2}>> 6)&0x3f)|0x80 )) \
\$(( ( \${2}     &0x3f)|0x80 ))
elif [[ \${2} -le 0x3ffffff    ]]; then
printf -v val "\\%03o\\%03o\\%03o\\%03o\\%03o"  \
\$(( ( \${2}>>24)      |0xf8 )) \
\$(( ((\${2}>>18)&0x3f)|0x80 )) \
\$(( ((\${2}>>12)&0x3f)|0x80 )) \
\$(( ((\${2}>> 6)&0x3f)|0x80 )) \
\$(( ( \${2}     &0x3f)|0x80 ))
elif [[ \${2} -le 0x7fffffff ]]; then
printf -v val "\\%03o\\%03o\\%03o\\%03o\\%03o\\%03o"  \
\$(( ( \${2}>>30)      |0xfc )) \
\$(( ((\${2}>>24)&0x3f)|0x80 )) \
\$(( ((\${2}>>18)&0x3f)|0x80 )) \
\$(( ((\${2}>>12)&0x3f)|0x80 )) \
\$(( ((\${2}>> 6)&0x3f)|0x80 )) \
\$(( ( \${2}     &0x3f)|0x80 ))
else
printf -v "\${1:?Missing Dest Variable}" ""
return 1
fi
printf -v "\${1:?Missing Dest Variable}" "\${val}"
}
function chr_utf8 {
local val
[[ \${2?Missing Ordinal Value} -lt 0x80000000 ]] || return 1

if [[ \${2} -lt 0x100 && \${2} -ge 0x80 ]]; then

# bash 4.2 incorrectly encodes
# \U000000ff as \xff so encode manually
printf -v val "\\%03o\%03o" \$(( (\${2}>>6)|0xc0 )) \$(( (\${2}&0x3f)|0x80 ))
else
printf -v val '\\U%08x' "\${2}"
fi
printf -v \${1?Missing Dest Variable} \${val}
}
function chr_eascii {
local val
# Make sure value less than 0x100
# otherwise we end up with
# \xVVNNNNN
# where \xVV = char && NNNNN is a number string
# so chr "0x44321" => "D321"
[[ \${2?Missing Ordinal Value} -lt 0x100 ]] || return 1
printf -v val '\\x%02x' "\${2}"
printf -v \${1?Missing Dest Variable} \${val}
}
function chr {
if [ "\${LC_CTYPE:-\${LC_ALL:-}}" = "C" ]; then
chr_eascii "\${@}"
else
chr_utf8 "\${@}"
fi
}
function chr_dec {
# interpreted as Octal
chr "\${1}" "\${2#\${2%%[!0]*}}"
}
function chr_oct {
chr "\${1}" "0\${2}"
}
function chr_hex {
chr "\${1}" "0x\${2#0x}"
}
function chr_utf8_echo {
local val
[[ \${1?Missing Ordinal Value} -lt 0x80000000 ]] || return 1

if [[ \${1} -lt 0x100 && \${1} -ge 0x80 ]]; then

# bash 4.2 incorrectly encodes
# \U000000ff as \xff so encode manually
printf -v val '\\%03o\\%03o' \$(( (\${1}>>6)|0xc0 )) \$(( (\${1}&0x3f)|0x80 ))
else
printf -v val '\\U%08x' "\${1}"
fi
printf "\${val}"
}
function chr_eascii_echo {
local val
# Make sure value less than 0x100
# otherwise we end up with
# \xVVNNNNN
# where \xVV = char && NNNNN is a number string
# so chr "0x44321" => "D321"
[[ \${1?Missing Ordinal Value} -lt 0x100 ]] || return 1
printf -v val '\\x%x' "\${1}"
printf "\${val}"
}
function chr_echo {
if [ "\${LC_CTYPE:-\${LC_ALL:-}}" = "C" ]; then
chr_eascii_echo "\${@}"
else
chr_utf8_echo "\${@}"
fi
}
function chr_dec_echo {
# interpreted as Octal
chr_echo "\${1#\${1%%[!0]*}}"
}
function chr_oct_echo {
chr_echo "0\${1}"
}
function chr_hex_echo {
chr_echo "0x\${1#0x}"
}

#
# Simple Validation code
#
function test_echo_func {
local Outcome _result
_result="\$( "\${1}" "\${2}" )"
[ "\${_result}" = "\${3}" ] && Outcome="Pass" || Outcome="Fail"
printf "# %-20s %-6s => "           "\${1}" "\${2}" "\${_result}" "\${3}"
printf "[ "%16q" = "%-16q"%-5s ] "  "\${_result}" "\${3}" "(\${3//[[:cntrl:]]/_})"
printf "%s\n"                       "\${Outcome}"

}
function test_value_func {
local Outcome _result
"\${1}" _result "\${2}"
[ "\${_result}" = "\${3}" ] && Outcome="Pass" || Outcome="Fail"
printf "# %-20s %-6s => "           "\${1}" "\${2}" "\${_result}" "\${3}"
printf "[ "%16q" = "%-16q"%-5s ] "  "\${_result}" "\${3}" "(\${3//[[:cntrl:]]/_})"
printf "%s\n"                       "\${Outcome}"
}
test_echo_func  chr_echo "\$(ord_echo  "A")"  "A"
test_echo_func  ord_echo "\$(chr_echo "65")"  "65"
test_echo_func  chr_echo "\$(ord_echo  "ö")"  "ö"
test_value_func chr      "\$(ord_echo  "A")"  "A"
test_value_func ord      "\$(chr_echo "65")"  "65"
test_value_func chr      "\$(ord_echo  "ö")"  "ö"
# chr_echo             65     => [                A = A               (A)   ] Pass
# ord_echo             A      => [               65 = 65              (65)  ] Pass
# chr_echo             246    => [      \$'\303\266' = \$'\303\266'     (ö)  ] Pass
# chr                  65     => [                A = A               (A)   ] Pass
# ord                  A      => [               65 = 65              (65)  ] Pass
# chr                  246    => [      \$'\303\266' = \$'\303\266'     (ö)  ] Pass
#

test_echo_func  chr_echo     "65"     A
test_echo_func  chr_echo     "065"    5
test_echo_func  chr_dec_echo "065"    A
test_echo_func  chr_oct_echo "65"     5
test_echo_func  chr_hex_echo "65"     e
test_value_func chr          "65"     A
test_value_func chr          "065"    5
test_value_func chr_dec      "065"    A
test_value_func chr_oct      "65"     5
test_value_func chr_hex      "65"     e
# chr_echo             65     => [                A = A               (A)   ] Pass
# chr_echo             065    => [                5 = 5               (5)   ] Pass
# chr_dec_echo         065    => [                A = A               (A)   ] Pass
# chr_oct_echo         65     => [                5 = 5               (5)   ] Pass
# chr_hex_echo         65     => [                e = e               (e)   ] Pass
# chr                  65     => [                A = A               (A)   ] Pass
# chr                  065    => [                5 = 5               (5)   ] Pass
# chr_dec              065    => [                A = A               (A)   ] Pass
# chr_oct              65     => [                5 = 5               (5)   ] Pass
# chr_hex              65     => [                e = e               (e)   ] Pass

#test_value_func chr          0xff   \$'\xff'
test_value_func chr_eascii   0xff   \$'\xff'
test_value_func chr_utf8     0xff   \$'\uff'      # Note this fails because bash encodes it incorrectly
test_value_func chr_utf8     0xff   \$'\303\277'
test_value_func chr_utf8     0x100  \$'\u100'
test_value_func chr_utf8     0x1000 \$'\u1000'
test_value_func chr_utf8     0xffff \$'\uffff'
# chr_eascii           0xff   => [          \$'\377' = \$'\377'         (�)   ] Pass
# chr_utf8             0xff   => [      \$'\303\277' = \$'\377'         (�)   ] Fail
# chr_utf8             0xff   => [      \$'\303\277' = \$'\303\277'     (ÿ)  ] Pass
# chr_utf8             0x100  => [      \$'\304\200' = \$'\304\200'     (Ā)  ] Pass
# chr_utf8             0x1000 => [  \$'\341\200\200' = \$'\341\200\200' (က) ] Pass
# chr_utf8             0xffff => [  \$'\357\277\277' = \$'\357\277\277' (���) ] Pass
test_value_func ord_utf8     "A"           65
test_value_func ord_utf8     "ä"          228
test_value_func ord_utf8     \$'\303\277'  255
test_value_func ord_utf8     \$'\u100'     256

#########################################################
# to help debug problems try this
#########################################################
printf "%q\n" \$'\xff'                  # => \$'\377'
printf "%q\n" \$'\uffff'                # => \$'\357\277\277'
printf "%q\n" "\$(chr_utf8_echo 0x100)" # => \$'\304\200'
#
# This can help a lot when it comes to diagnosing problems
# with read and or xterm program output
# I use it a lot in error case to create a human readable error message
# i.e.
echo "Enter type to test, Enter to continue"
case "\${asciiValue}" in
10) echo "Goodbye" ; break ;;
20|21|22) echo "Yay expected input" ;;
*) printf ':( Unexpected Input 0x%02x %q "%s"\n' "\${asciiValue}" "\${REPLY}" "\${REPLY//[[:cntrl:]]}" ;;
esac
done

#########################################################
# More exotic approach 1
#########################################################
# I used to use this before I figured out the LC_CTYPE=C approach
# printf "EAsciiLookup=%q" "\$(for (( x=0x0; x<0x100 ; x++)); do printf '%b' \$(printf '\\x%02x' "\$x"); done)"
EAsciiLookup=\$'\001\002\003\004\005\006\a\b\t\n\v\f\r\016\017\020\021\022\023'
EAsciiLookup+=\$'\024\025\026\027\030\031\032\E\034\035\036\037 !"#\$%&\'()*+,-'
EAsciiLookup+=\$'./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\\]^_`abcdefghi'
EAsciiLookup+=\$'jklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~\177\200\201\202\203\204\205\206\207\210'
EAsciiLookup+=\$'\211\212\213\214\215\216\217\220\221\222\223\224\225\226\227'
EAsciiLookup+=\$'\230\231\232\233\234\235\236\237\240\241\242\243\244\245\246'
EAsciiLookup+=\$'\247\250\251\252\253\254\255\256\257\260\261\262\263\264\265'
EAsciiLookup+=\$'\266\267\270\271\272\273\274\275\276\277\300\301\302\303\304'
EAsciiLookup+=\$'\305\306\307\310\311\312\313\314\315\316\317\320\321\322\323'
EAsciiLookup+=\$'\324\325\326\327\330\331\332\333\334\335\336\337\340\341\342'
EAsciiLookup+=\$'\343\344\345\346\347\350\351\352\353\354\355\356\357\360\361'
EAsciiLookup+=\$'\362\363\364\365\366\367\370\371\372\373\374\375\376\377'
function ord_eascii2 {
local idx="\${EAsciiLookup%%\${2:0:1}*}"
eval \${1}'=\$(( \${#idx} +1 ))'
}

#########################################################
# More exotic approach 2
#########################################################
#printf "EAsciiLookup2=(\n    %s\n)" "\$(for (( x=0x1; x<0x100 ; x++)); do printf '%-18s'  "\$(printf '[_%q]="0x%02x"' "\$(printf "%b" "\$(printf '\\x%02x' "\$x")")" \$x )" ; [ "\$((\$x%6))" != "0" ] || echo -en "\n    " ; done)"
typeset -A EAsciiLookup2
EAsciiLookup2=(
[_\$'\001']="0x01" [_\$'\002']="0x02" [_\$'\003']="0x03" [_\$'\004']="0x04"
[_\$'\005']="0x05" [_\$'\006']="0x06" [_\$'\a']="0x07"   [_\$'\b']="0x08"
[_\$'\t']="0x09"   [_'']="0x0a"      [_\$'\v']="0x0b"   [_\$'\f']="0x0c"
[_\$'\r']="0x0d"   [_\$'\016']="0x0e" [_\$'\017']="0x0f" [_\$'\020']="0x10"
[_\$'\021']="0x11" [_\$'\022']="0x12" [_\$'\023']="0x13" [_\$'\024']="0x14"
[_\$'\025']="0x15" [_\$'\026']="0x16" [_\$'\027']="0x17" [_\$'\030']="0x18"
[_\$'\031']="0x19" [_\$'\032']="0x1a" [_\$'\E']="0x1b"   [_\$'\034']="0x1c"
[_\$'\035']="0x1d" [_\$'\036']="0x1e" [_\$'\037']="0x1f" [_\ ]="0x20"
[_\!]="0x21"      [_\"]="0x22"      [_\#]="0x23"      [_\\$]="0x24"
[_%]="0x25"       [_\&]="0x26"      [_\']="0x27"      [_\(]="0x28"
[_\)]="0x29"      [_\*]="0x2a"      [_+]="0x2b"       [_\,]="0x2c"
[_-]="0x2d"       [_.]="0x2e"       [_/]="0x2f"       [_0]="0x30"
[_1]="0x31"       [_2]="0x32"       [_3]="0x33"       [_4]="0x34"
[_5]="0x35"       [_6]="0x36"       [_7]="0x37"       [_8]="0x38"
[_9]="0x39"       [_:]="0x3a"       [_\;]="0x3b"      [_\<]="0x3c"
[_=]="0x3d"       [_\>]="0x3e"      [_\?]="0x3f"      [_@]="0x40"
[_A]="0x41"       [_B]="0x42"       [_C]="0x43"       [_D]="0x44"
[_E]="0x45"       [_F]="0x46"       [_G]="0x47"       [_H]="0x48"
[_I]="0x49"       [_J]="0x4a"       [_K]="0x4b"       [_L]="0x4c"
[_M]="0x4d"       [_N]="0x4e"       [_O]="0x4f"       [_P]="0x50"
[_Q]="0x51"       [_R]="0x52"       [_S]="0x53"       [_T]="0x54"
[_U]="0x55"       [_V]="0x56"       [_W]="0x57"       [_X]="0x58"
[_Y]="0x59"       [_Z]="0x5a"       [_\[]="0x5b"      #[_\\]="0x5c"
#[_\]]="0x5d"
[_\^]="0x5e"      [__]="0x5f"       [_\`]="0x60"
[_a]="0x61"       [_b]="0x62"       [_c]="0x63"       [_d]="0x64"
[_e]="0x65"       [_f]="0x66"       [_g]="0x67"       [_h]="0x68"
[_i]="0x69"       [_j]="0x6a"       [_k]="0x6b"       [_l]="0x6c"
[_m]="0x6d"       [_n]="0x6e"       [_o]="0x6f"       [_p]="0x70"
[_q]="0x71"       [_r]="0x72"       [_s]="0x73"       [_t]="0x74"
[_u]="0x75"       [_v]="0x76"       [_w]="0x77"       [_x]="0x78"
[_y]="0x79"       [_z]="0x7a"       [_\{]="0x7b"      [_\|]="0x7c"
[_\}]="0x7d"      [_~]="0x7e"       [_\$'\177']="0x7f" [_\$'\200']="0x80"
[_\$'\201']="0x81" [_\$'\202']="0x82" [_\$'\203']="0x83" [_\$'\204']="0x84"
[_\$'\205']="0x85" [_\$'\206']="0x86" [_\$'\207']="0x87" [_\$'\210']="0x88"
[_\$'\211']="0x89" [_\$'\212']="0x8a" [_\$'\213']="0x8b" [_\$'\214']="0x8c"
[_\$'\215']="0x8d" [_\$'\216']="0x8e" [_\$'\217']="0x8f" [_\$'\220']="0x90"
[_\$'\221']="0x91" [_\$'\222']="0x92" [_\$'\223']="0x93" [_\$'\224']="0x94"
[_\$'\225']="0x95" [_\$'\226']="0x96" [_\$'\227']="0x97" [_\$'\230']="0x98"
[_\$'\231']="0x99" [_\$'\232']="0x9a" [_\$'\233']="0x9b" [_\$'\234']="0x9c"
[_\$'\235']="0x9d" [_\$'\236']="0x9e" [_\$'\237']="0x9f" [_\$'\240']="0xa0"
[_\$'\241']="0xa1" [_\$'\242']="0xa2" [_\$'\243']="0xa3" [_\$'\244']="0xa4"
[_\$'\245']="0xa5" [_\$'\246']="0xa6" [_\$'\247']="0xa7" [_\$'\250']="0xa8"
[_\$'\251']="0xa9" [_\$'\252']="0xaa" [_\$'\253']="0xab" [_\$'\254']="0xac"
[_\$'\261']="0xb1" [_\$'\262']="0xb2" [_\$'\263']="0xb3" [_\$'\264']="0xb4"
[_\$'\265']="0xb5" [_\$'\266']="0xb6" [_\$'\267']="0xb7" [_\$'\270']="0xb8"
[_\$'\271']="0xb9" [_\$'\272']="0xba" [_\$'\273']="0xbb" [_\$'\274']="0xbc"
[_\$'\275']="0xbd" [_\$'\276']="0xbe" [_\$'\277']="0xbf" [_\$'\300']="0xc0"
[_\$'\301']="0xc1" [_\$'\302']="0xc2" [_\$'\303']="0xc3" [_\$'\304']="0xc4"
[_\$'\305']="0xc5" [_\$'\306']="0xc6" [_\$'\307']="0xc7" [_\$'\310']="0xc8"
[_\$'\311']="0xc9" [_\$'\312']="0xca" [_\$'\313']="0xcb" [_\$'\314']="0xcc"
[_\$'\315']="0xcd" [_\$'\316']="0xce" [_\$'\317']="0xcf" [_\$'\320']="0xd0"
[_\$'\321']="0xd1" [_\$'\322']="0xd2" [_\$'\323']="0xd3" [_\$'\324']="0xd4"
[_\$'\325']="0xd5" [_\$'\326']="0xd6" [_\$'\327']="0xd7" [_\$'\330']="0xd8"
[_\$'\331']="0xd9" [_\$'\332']="0xda" [_\$'\333']="0xdb" [_\$'\334']="0xdc"
[_\$'\335']="0xdd" [_\$'\336']="0xde" [_\$'\337']="0xdf" [_\$'\340']="0xe0"
[_\$'\341']="0xe1" [_\$'\342']="0xe2" [_\$'\343']="0xe3" [_\$'\344']="0xe4"
[_\$'\345']="0xe5" [_\$'\346']="0xe6" [_\$'\347']="0xe7" [_\$'\350']="0xe8"
[_\$'\351']="0xe9" [_\$'\352']="0xea" [_\$'\353']="0xeb" [_\$'\354']="0xec"
[_\$'\355']="0xed" [_\$'\356']="0xee" [_\$'\357']="0xef" [_\$'\360']="0xf0"
[_\$'\361']="0xf1" [_\$'\362']="0xf2" [_\$'\363']="0xf3" [_\$'\364']="0xf4"
[_\$'\365']="0xf5" [_\$'\366']="0xf6" [_\$'\367']="0xf7" [_\$'\370']="0xf8"
[_\$'\371']="0xf9" [_\$'\372']="0xfa" [_\$'\373']="0xfb" [_\$'\374']="0xfc"
[_\$'\375']="0xfd" [_\$'\376']="0xfe" [_\$'\377']="0xff"
)
function ord_eascii3 {
local -i val="\${EAsciiLookup2["_\${2:0:1}"]-}"
if [ "\${val}" -eq 0 ]; then
case "\${2:0:1}" in
])  val=0x5d ;;
\\) val=0x5c ;;
esac
fi
eval "\${1}"'="\${val}"'
}
# for fun check out the following
time for (( i=0 ; i <1000; i++ )); do ord TmpVar 'a'; done
#  real 0m0.065s
#  user 0m0.048s
#  sys  0m0.000s

time for (( i=0 ; i <1000; i++ )); do ord_eascii TmpVar 'a'; done
#  real 0m0.239s
#  user 0m0.188s
#  sys  0m0.000s

time for (( i=0 ; i <1000; i++ )); do ord_utf8 TmpVar 'a'; done
#  real       0m0.225s
#  user       0m0.180s
#  sys        0m0.000s

time for (( i=0 ; i <1000; i++ )); do ord_eascii2 TmpVar 'a'; done
#  real 0m1.507s
#  user 0m1.056s
#  sys  0m0.012s

time for (( i=0 ; i <1000; i++ )); do ord_eascii3 TmpVar 'a'; done
#  real 0m0.147s
#  user 0m0.120s
#  sys  0m0.000s

time for (( i=0 ; i <1000; i++ )); do ord_echo 'a' >/dev/null ; done
#  real       0m0.065s
#  user       0m0.044s
#  sys        0m0.016s

time for (( i=0 ; i <1000; i++ )); do ord_eascii_echo 'a' >/dev/null ; done
#  real       0m0.089s
#  user       0m0.068s
#  sys        0m0.008s

time for (( i=0 ; i <1000; i++ )); do ord_utf8_echo 'a' >/dev/null ; done
#  real       0m0.226s
#  user       0m0.172s
#  sys        0m0.012s```

2012-07-01 04:05